Music to Process Trauma by…

One of the things I was interested in whilst doing my research was whether anyone else found music as important as I did in recovering. Quite a few people mentioned music but I thought I’d share the songs that meant a lot to me. It’s all about the lyrics.

Sometimes it’s about being angry….

Or, incidentally, when you need music to clean your house to. Metallica is good for both: cleaning and rage.

Sometimes you need reminding that you are strong.

Back in the day, before digital downloads a friend searched secondhand record shops to find me that single. That meant so much. I wasn’t alone. Which brings me to…

Something I’ve always aspired to be. Lately my favourite has been this one

Ultimately though every day is a new day and a new start. No one singer is more important to me than Nina.

And rinse and repeat. As I was frequently reminded throughout my research recovery is actually recovering – an ongoing, never ending process but that doesn’t mean that you can’t have moments, days or months or years of happiness. Do you have any music that speaks to you? Please share in the comments or on Twitter.

It’s not just fight or flight…

Smith, Thomas Stuart; Study of a Rabbit; The Stirling Smith Art Gallery & Museum; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/study-of-a-rabbit-127657
Study of a Rabbit, Thomas Stuart Smith

Recently a group of men who gang raped a woman in Pamplona had their conviction reduced from rape to sexual assault, despite the fact that they raped their victim. There is no question about this as they filmed it on their phones. The reason why their convictions were downgraded was because the victim didn’t fight, but was ‘passive or neutral’ according to the police reports. This has lead to many demonstrations and anger over this apparent judgement of the victims behaviour.

It also ignores the fact that there is another response to violent attack than fight or flight – there is also freeze or ‘tonic immobility’ to give it its formal name. Ignoring, for now, the fact that this victim blaming attitude goes right back at least as far as the Bible (read Deuteronomy 22:23-27) let’s look at the evidence for this third reaction to fear and violence.

Like in animals there is evidence that humans can sometimes freeze when faced with danger, literally be unable to move. Moller (2017) et al, interviewed 298 women who had been victims of a sexual assault. Of those 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility – so nearly half could not move at all during the assault. They also found that the women who had experienced this were more likely to develop c-PTSD and/or severe depression.

So it looks as though the ‘freeze’ reflex is very common and I’d argue it may even be more common in children where, even more so than adults, fight or flight may not be options.

Going back to the Pamplona case it did inspire the nuns of Hondarribia to send out the following message.

Db7vebEXkAAXTmu

Amen.

 

References

Möller, A., Söndergaard, H.P. & Helström, L., 2017. Tonic immobility during sexual assault – a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 96(8), pp.932–938.

 

 

 

Do the Abused become Abusers?

Short answer: Not in general, no. Long answer follows below.

Billingham, Roy, b.1944; Anger, Frustration, Acceptance
Anger, Frustration, Acceptance by Roy Billingham,  Photo credit: St George’s Hospital

Most studies into offending get their data by asking child abuse offenders if they experienced sexual abuse as children (CSA), with many reporting that they did. It has been pointed out that their word is not necessarily reliable and they may have other reasons for stating this.

Not many studies look at abuse victims and survivors in general. A recent Dutch study by de Jong and Dennison (2017) looked at the history of offending amongst 943 child abuse victims, comparing them with 1439 of their siblings, over a 30 year period. They also compared these with a control group of 645 randomly chosen people. So this is not a small scale study.

They found that victims of CSA are at a higher risk of being convicted of a crime, in general, than the control group. Looking at child abuse convictions specifically they found that some CSA victims did have higher rates of convictions but so did their (non victim?) siblings.

What does that mean? It suggests that it is the family environment and experiences, or even genetics, that creates offenders, not the experience of CSA. A question here is whether the siblings were also abused but their abuse was not part of the original court case. de Jong and Dennison looked again at the data excluding convictions for incest and found higher rates of violent offending, traffic crimes and drugs offences for victims but again no higher rates of CSA offending.

If you look at it by gender they found a small but not statistically significant (so it could just be by chance) rise in CSA offences in women who were victims of CSA and no rise in offences by men who had experienced CSA. This last point is very interesting as the majority of convicted abusers are men but there is no evidence, in this study, that abuse creates abusers.

What this study also highlights are the higher risks of criminal behaviour for people who have experienced CSA and this is important too. I believe this is proof that we need better support and information for victims and survivors to help them in their recovery. Society in general will benefit, from reduced crime rates and happier people, as well as the individual themselves.

REFERENCES:

de Jong, R and Dennison,S (2017) Recorded offending among child sexual abuse victims: A 30-year follow-up. Child Abuse & Neglect 72, 75-84.

 

 

December 2017 Research Update

Peruzzi, Baldassare, 1481-1536; Dance of Apollo and the Muses
Dance of Apollo and the Muses by Baldassare Peruzzi. Photo Credit: Camden Local Studies and Archives Centre

I thought it was time that I update you all on how the research is going. I’ve had 79 responses to the survey so far. Thank you so much to everyone who has taken the time to fill it in. There are responses from people of different ethnicities, abilities and ages (from 18-70+). The majority live in the UK but there are responses from all over the world. Most of the responses are from women (86%) with 14% from men.

There are themes coming out regarding recovering from abuse and I’m going to explore them further through interviews. So many people have offered to take part in interviews (over half). Thank you so much! I’m not going to be able to interview everyone but I will try to talk to as many people as I can. I will contact people in the New Year to arrange these interviews, which can be face to face or by phone, skype, email or messenger.

I wanted to feedback to everyone about two themes that have come out strongly in your responses, as they don’t cost much and are available to most people. If you want to try them please do. A few people have said that these things did not help them so be aware that they may not work for you.

There are many comments regarding the positive effects of creativity, in any form, on recovering. Examples people have given so far include: drawing, painting, writing, poetry, music, crafts, dance, gardening and sewing.

There are also lots of people saying that physical activity, particularly yoga, is helpful. There are free YouTube yoga videos; examples include Yoga with Adrienne (who has created this Wheelchair Yoga video),  Yoga for Men and Body Positive Yoga.  I’m going to do some yoga and crafts over the holidays.

If you haven’t yet taken part, and want to, the survey can be found here. I’m going to keep it open for another few months and I’ll keep updating the website with information as I get it. If you try yoga or something creative I’d love to hear how you get on. You can comment below, fill in the survey or email me.

Thanks once again to everyone who has filled in the survey, shared it or is interested in the research.

Recovery from Trauma – the Body Keeps the Score

I’m in The Hague for the next few days at the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) conference. There have been lots of interesting papers so far but I was inspired to blog about two sessions today from Bessel Van de Kolk because it’s all about the effects of trauma on the brain and how to recover from it – so exactly what I am interested in.

People’s normal response to a traumatic incident, he used the example of the twin towers attack on 9/11, is to run away and specifically run home. This is because running is a very effective strategy when you are in danger and home is a safe place.

The picture here was drawn by a 5 year old boy who was involved in 9/11. He drew this the day after, when he had escaped to his safe home. It shows the towers, falling people and at the top right a fireball. What touched me is that the black circle in the bottom of the picture is apparently a trampoline to help the people falling. It shows the inherent goodness and optimism of kids in my opinion.

But what happens when you cannot run, because you are prevented from escape? Also what happens if home is not safe? He said that in one study adults were asked if they felt safe with anyone as a child. A large percentage (didn’t write it down but I think it was around 45%) said they did not.

So this is where PTSD and other traumatic responses come in. Without the ability to escape and/or a safe person or place to help the child stays in a panic state into adulthood, which they do not have the ability to process. He describes it as being stuck with a broken alarm system – either overreacting or under reacting to events.

This panic state is either numbed emotionally, expressed explosively or dulled through behaviour that can be harmful long term (drink, drugs etc). Bessel argues that the very first thing a person who has been abused needs to learn is how to calm down in a safe, healthy way.

Apparently he asked Nelson Mandela how he stayed so calm when in prison. Mandela said it was boxing – because it helped him become aware of his body. Bessel van de Kolk recommends yoga, mindfulness, tai chi – anything involving movement and mindfulness.

Bessel has written a book about this ‘The Body Keeps the Score‘ which is very good. I realised that I had misunderstood what PTSD was. I had thought it was like on tv or the movies where a Vietnam vet is still hallucinating being in a war zone despite being at home. Instead complex PTSD can involve avoiding anything that reminds the person of their abuser(s) and can also involve using coping strategies (like drink or drugs) to reduce anxiety. ACT therapy is recommended as a useful treatment. It involves mindfulness and accepting that you will always have strong feelings about being abused and that trying to deny them actually causes problems. It’s an approach that makes sense (to me anyway).

So there’s a number of things you can try here if you are struggling:

1. Get tested for complex PTSD by your GP – The most important one I think!

2. Mindfulness

3. Tai chi

4. Martial arts

5. Yoga

6. Read any books by Russ Harris (who designed ACT therapy). They have stupid titles in my opinion but are useful books.

7. Get ‘The Body Keeps the Score’ by Bessel Van De Kolk.