For #WorldMentalHealthDay2019 I’d like to see a recognition of how society affects mental health. For example, for people who have experienced trauma stigma and stereotyping can make them feel worse and stop them asking for help. We all need to change.
Plus we need properly funded and appropriate services. This would mean trauma informed treatment where people are asked about their life experiences. Also no one should be left in the position of not being able to afford the treatment they need.
Finally anyone reporting trauma should be tested for PTSD. It’s very common after trauma and as a diagnosis helps people understand why they struggle with life sometimes. It’s definitely helped me.
The second All Party Parliamentary Group Report (APPG) has been published. You can read it here. This one looks at people’s experience of the Police and Crown Prosecution Service. As before I submitted my research evidence to this. The recommendations are:
Introduce a victims law with a code of practice, complaints procedure and properly resourced Victims Commissioner
Amend the Policing and Crime Act 2017 to create a presumption that suspects under investigation for sexual offences against children and adults only be released from policy custody on bail.
A national cross-government strategy on addressing childhood trauma and adverse experiences. This should include training and support for police officers in how to recognise and respond to abuse in a trauma-informed way and in particular how to communicate investigation outcomes sensitively.
A national, standardised leaflet for officers to provide survivors with the information they need when they report the crime.
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services (HMICFRS)
should undertake a national thematic review of non-recent ‘child sexual abuse’ which focuses on the experiences of adult survivors.
Thank you to everyone who contributed. I’m currently writing my thesis so I’m a bit quiet online. However, once it is done I’ll be able to feed back what the results were.
In the 1990’s there was a lot of press about recovered memories of child sexual abuse (CSA), most suggesting that they were false memories implanted by therapists. I’ve been researching this area for my thesis and was surprised by what I found. The False Memory Syndrome Foundation was founded by Peter and Pamela Freyd after their daughter, who is also an academic, accused her father of CSA. The most significant proponent of this theory is Elizabeth Loftus who argued that recovered memories were not reliable or necessarily true. Her research has been used in many criminal cases, including the Cosby trial, to ‘disprove’ claims. This isn’t the first time that memories of abuse have been questioned. Sigmund Freud first concluded that such memories were real before changing his mind and deciding that they were fantasies. You can read all about that here.
In contrast, there is clear evidence that repressed memories are possible. For example, Linda Meyer Williams interviewed 129 women with previous documented experience of CSA and found 38% did not remember. She found it was most common where the child had been very young at the time of the abuse and/or abused by someone they knew. Indeed, in a recent Australian case a perpetrator, convicted of assaulting multiple victims, confessed to abusing a boy and the victim, now older, did not remember although he does have PTSD. Repressed memories have also been demonstrated to be just as accurate as other trauma memories.
It is important to consider why people are making such arguments – in this case a man who was himself accused of abuse. All academics have reasons why we research particular things. I think that we should be open about what they are particularly when our research affects real people especially children.
The idea of false memories are still under debate within the academic and medical community as well as wider society. In general the pendulum has swung from disbelief of memories in the 1990’s to more acceptance now. However, it continues to affect people’s reactions and should be challenged by highlighting its origins.
Loftus, E. (1993) ‘The Reality of Repressed Memories.’, Am Psychol, 48(5), pp. 518–537. doi: 10.1300/J229v03n01_03.
Rydberg, J. A. (2017) ‘Research and clinical issues in trauma and dissociation: Ethical and logical fallacies, myths, misreports, and misrepresentations’, European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. Elsevier Masson SAS, 1(2), pp. 89–99. doi: 10.1016/j.ejtd.2017.03.011
Scheflin, A. W. and Brown, D. (1996) ‘Repressed Memory or Dissociative Amnesia: What the Science Says’, Psychiatry & Law, 24, pp. 143–188.
Williams, L. M. (1994) ‘Recall of Childhood Trauma: A Prospective Study of Women’s Memories of Child Sexual Abuse’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, pp. 1167–1176. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.62.6.1167.
I believe research should aim to change things for the better so I feed my results in wherever I can. One submission I made was to the All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). They have published the first in a series of reports and included the evidence I submitted, alongside evidence from organisations and individuals. You can read the report here.
The recommendations they make in this report are:
Research the economic and social costs of CSA.
Fund core support services.
Collect data on the demand for support and ring-fence money to meet that demand.
Inform professionals how to respond in a trauma informed way.
Have a government public health campaign to destroy CSA myths and stereotypes
I’m happy with these recommendations. It is clear in my research how underfunded mental health services are and how poorly professionals can react to CSA disclosure as well as how badly this impacts individuals who have experienced CSA. The fifth recommendation is key – stigma and stereotyping makes recovering so much harder.
I hope that the government takes this report on board – it makes financial and moral sense to do so. I’ll look forward to reading the other reports when they are released. Many thanks to everyone who contributed to my research.
During my research it has become clear that people who have experienced CSA do not know about advances in CSA research. This is no fault of theirs but instead reflects how taboo the subject is. Nobody talks about it but lots of people experience it. I want to share up to date information about CSA research and the first topic is memories.
Traumatic experiences are difficult for the person to experience. Animals sometimes freeze when they cannot escape a situation. Humans are no different. It is common for the individual to dissociate and attempt to mentally leave the situation. Dissociation is defined by MIND as ‘an experience where you feel disconnected in some way from the world around you or from yourself.’ During the traumatic incident the person might enter an altered sense of reality, detached from the self and time. Children are more likely to dissociate so people who have experience childhood sexual abuse frequently experience this. What does this mean for them as an adult?
Amnesia is common following dissociation, as this state might affect how memory is stored. The person may struggle to recall facts about the incident(s) or even that it took place at all. It does seem however that emotions and sensations around the event(s) are retained, which means that someone can feel fear, for example, without remembering why. Many people find memories returning later, often in adulthood.
PTSD and other Conditions
Dissociation raises the risk of long term conditions such as Complex-PTSD. With C-PTSD things that remind the person of the traumatic experience (triggers) lead to a re-experiencing of that event. This does not necessarily mean a complete flashback but can mean the re-experiencing of emotions as described above. There is further information about C-PTSD here on the NHS site.
There are other dissociative conditions such as Dissociative Identity Disorder, see the MIND link here, that are again tied to early trauma.
To sum up memory gaps and even total amnesia is common in people who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. It is a consequence of the body trying to deal with an traumatic experience. C-PTSD is also common and may be, in part, a consequence of that dissociation.
Scaer, R.C., 2001. The Neurophysiology of Dissociation & Chronic Disease. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 26(1), pp.73–91.
Van der Kolk, B., 2014. The Body Keeps the Score: Mind, Brain and Body in the Transformation of Trauma, London: Viking.
As well as therapy two things are often suggested as ‘cures’ for trauma – art and yoga. This can be annoying, for its simplicity and the potential imposition of someone else’s ‘cure’ for your ill. However in my research art and yoga have indeed come out as positive experiences. So what’s the truth to this?
Yoga is thought to reduce anxiety and switch the body from an anxious state to a calmer one. More here about that. Art and anything creative is seen as a safe way to express trauma. So why don’t they work for everyone? Why isn’t this THE answer?
Reading my participants responses, about what helps their recovering, I found great similarities whether they were describing creating art, writing, performance poetry, financial management, reading, music, gardening, dancing, walking, karate or even cross country jumping on a shire horse. They all described activities that were somewhat challenging (but achievable) and so absorbing that they lost all sense of time. They talked about rhythm, motion and a feeling of mastery over their environment. Something that engendered a sense of pride in their achievements.
This phenomenon is called ‘Flow’ and it was described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. When we reach that flow state we don’t have space in our minds for anxiety. He suggests that we try to move from chasing pleasure to enjoyment. Pleasure is a momentary ‘hit,’ a mouthful of chocolate, for example. Enjoyment is something that creates long term growth, like a really good deep conversation with a friend. They are both good but one has more positive effects on the future for that individual – they learn something, they change and they grow – that is where we find happiness.
The responses from my participants and this idea of flow has really made sense to me. Indeed I am researching precisely because I enjoy it – when I find that flow through my work I lose myself in it, I am truly happy and this is why I want to make it my career. This is why people say that you should do the thing you love and then you’ll never work a day in your life. I’m nearly 50 and am aiming for the rest of my working life to have more flow.
Coming back to the art and yoga issue. They don’t work for everyone because they don’t always lead to flow and enjoyment. It really is a case of ‘whatever floats your boat.’ I have created a mental list of fun activities I do where time zips by; researching, drawing and painting, gardening, cooking, music, watching a good documentary, model making, playing a computer game, meditating, a good chat with friends, lego with my children, laughing with my husband – my list will be different from yours but I’m planning on doing more of these things. I also understand why other things people love just don’t work for me.
This idea of creating flow can be minimised into encouraging people to do their hobbies but really its much wider than that – it is about learning to find that flow in as many activities as possible – setting ourselves goals to achieve even in the smallest things – gamifying life.
The most important thing about it is that it comes from the individual and really can’t be imposed from outside.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., (2002). Flow: The Classic Work on how to achieve Happiness 2nd ed., London, Sydney, Auckland, Johannesburg: Random House (Rider).
It’s been a while since I blogged. I’ve been typing up interview transcripts – a long and complex job and investigating future possibilities – more of those in later blogs. Now the University teaching year has started I’ve been teaching seminars and covering my supervisor’s lectures about the sociology of evil. It’s really interesting stuff so I thought it’d be a good subject to blog about.
Different disciplines approach evil in differing ways. Theology views it as the great battle between good and evil. Psychologists and psychiatrists look for its origins in people’s childhood experiences and neuro-biologists scan brains for damaged or missing areas.
Sociologists ask a different question. What is evil for? Why do we use the term? Why do we describe some people or acts as evil and not others? Alexander (2001) argues that evil is used to highlight good – we talk about things being evil to make it clear what we, as a society, want people to do instead.
As an example, child sexual abuse is generally seen as an evil act. This highlights our horror at people hurting children because, as a society, we want children to be cared for. This is good – the abuse of children is extremely wrong and could definitely be described as evil. Society wants to underline that abuse is wrong.
There are, however, a few unintended problems with this. Firstly when we think of ‘evil’ people we imagine monstrous, almost bestial, people. The vast majority of abuse is carried out by family members or acquaintances, not demonic strangers, so most abusers appear completely normal. If we are looking for ‘evil’ are we ignoring what is happening in our community, street or even home? Does this mean we are more likely to dismiss or ignore accusations?
Secondly ‘evil’ is seen as something catching. So there is the idea that people who have been abused go on to be abusers – something that there isn’t very much evidence for. This means that people who have been abused are scared from talking about it – so perpetrators get away with more crimes. It also means that families encourage children (and adults) to stay silent, to avoid the shame – but why would there be any shame unless there was this idea that people who have been abused are ‘tainted’ in some way?
So what do we do? I absolutely think that as a society we need to define what is acceptable and what is not. Abusing a child is not acceptable. It is utterly selfish to take what you want regardless of the harm done to another – particularly a child. But society needs to talk about it and learn about it. The label of evil, whilst an understandable way of expressing our horror at abuse, means that we don’t talk about it and we silence those who do want to talk about it. Openness is the key here. Silence allows abusers to get away with their crimes and prevents recovery for people who have experienced it.
Alexander, Jeffrey C. (2001) ‘Towards a Sociology of Evil’, in Maria Pia Lara (ed.) Rethinking Evil: Contemporary Perspectives, pp. 153–72. Berkeley: University of